A correctly selected switchboard is a guarantee and the basis for safety in the operation of electrical systems of an apartment, house, enterprise.
Let's try to figure it out.
What is a switchboard?
What types of switchboards are there?
How to choose a switchboard?
Electrical switchboard (switchboard, shield) - a device designed to receive and distribute electrical energy at a voltage of less than 1000 V single and three-phase alternating current with a frequency of 50-60 Hz, infrequent switching on and off the lines of group circuits, as well as for their protection in case of overloads and short circuits.
It is used in lighting and power installations of country houses, apartments and administrative and industrial premises. The price of this product depends on its purpose and scope. It is connected to one or more electrical circuits, powered by incoming circuits, and has connections for neutral and protective conductors.
The main types of switchboards by purpose
Types of switchboards:
- Floor board;
1. Main metal electrical distribution board (MSB)
- The main shield is used to enter and branch out electricity around an apartment or building.
- The main feature is that it works in networks with a solidly grounded neutral wire, and can also keep track of incoming electricity.
- The main switchboard is used to protect electrical lines from voltage surges and electrical leakage.
2. Group switchboard
- The group switchboard is designed to control a part of current consumers (lamps, household appliances, etc.).
- The group distribution board is equipped with automatic switches to control the current consumption. With the help of machines, you can completely cut off the electricity.
3.4. Apartment and story type switchboards
- These switchboards are analogous to group ones.
- Distribution boards are used for branching and control of incoming current by consumer groups.
- For an apartment, this can be: a boiler, electric stoves, a pump, sockets.
- For a multistory switchboard, the groups are apartments.
Classifications and design features of switchboards:
- Hinged switchboard, laid on;
- Distribution cabinet (floor);
- Built-in electrical panel;
- Portable shield;
Selection of a switchboard for indoor and outdoor placement:
Regardless of the choice of installation site, type and classification of the mounted electrical panel, a prerequisite for choosing a product is its protection class (IP-International Protection Marking)
According to the degree of protection against dust and moisture, switchboards are divided into models designed for use in:
- in dry, dust-free rooms, their degree of protection against dust and moisture - IP20, IP30,
- in humid, dusty rooms, (industrial enterprises, basements), their indicator of dust - moisture - protection - IP44, IP54,
- in an aggressive environment or outdoors, with an indicator of protection against dust and moisture - IP55, IP65.
Shields are made of metal or plastic. Plastic models are used indoors as small switchboards. Metal products can be made of metal entirely or in combination with transparent plastic or glass on the front panel to ensure the maximum convenience of taking readings from metering devices and monitoring the operation of different devices. Metal shields are equipped with mounting panels used for installing electrical devices and additional devices. In addition, such products are equipped with DIN rails, on which it is convenient to install modular devices.
For use in special conditions, special models have been created. To ensure a high level of protection, they are equipped with sealed cable outlets, additional rubber seals, and locking devices.